APA Format

APA Publication Manual, 7th Edition Sample Reference List Citations

Note: In APA Style, you will need to use Hanging Indentations for your references list. We recommend this APA Formatting Guide to help with your paper formatting needs. 

Journal article with DOI (digital object identifier)

Tan, H. K., Jones, G. V., & Watson, D. G. (2009). Encouraging the perceptual underdog: Positive affective priming of nonpreferred local-global processes. Emotion, 9(2), 238-247. doi:10.1037/a0014713

Journal article without DOI

Kiely, R., & Askham, J. (2012). Furnished imagination: The impact of preservice teacher training on early career work in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 46(3), 496-518.

Book (print) by a single author

Davies, D. (2010). Child development: A practitioner's guide (3rd ed.). The Guilford Press.

Book (print) by two or more authors

Babcock, R., Manning, K., Rogers, T., Goff, C., & Davies, A. (2012). A synthesis of qualitative studies of writing center tutoring, 1983-2006. Peter Lang.

Electronic version of print book

Newman, J. (2012). Best before: Videogames, supersession and obsolescence. [Ebook Library version]. http://www.ku.eblib.com

Electronic-only book

Stevens, K. (2008). The dreamer and the beast.  http://www.onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=332

Edited book with an author or authors

Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals. K. V. Kukil (Ed.). Anchor. 

Edited book with no author

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. Russell Sage Foundation. 

Article or chapter in edited book

Vàsquez, M. A. (2013). Grappling with the legacy of modernity: Implications for the sociology of religion. In C. Bender, W. Cadge, P. Levitt, & D. Smidle (Eds.), Religion on the edge: De-centering and re-centering the sociology of religion (pp. 23-42). Oxford University Press.

Chapter in a volume in a series

Fairclough, N., & Wodak, R. (1997). Critical discourse analysis. In T. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse studies: A multidisciplinary introduction: Vol. 2. Discourse as social interaction (pp. 258-284). Sage.

Article in a reference book

Tolchinsky, L. (2013). Childhood conceptions of literacy. In T. Nunes & P. Bryant (Eds.) Handbook of children's literacy (pp. 11-30). Kluwer.

An entry in an encyclopedia

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The New Encyclopedia  Britannica. (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508).: Encyclopedia Britannica. 

Government document

National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). U.S. Government Printing Office. 

Magazine article

Verini, J. (2012, December). The tunnels of Gaza. National Geographic, 222(6), 673-674.

Newspaper article

Hennigan, W. J. (2013, January 17). FAA grounds entire fleet of Boeing 787s; Flights are canceled as a range of electrical and power problems continue to plague the Dreamliner Jets. Los Angeles Times. https://www.cnn.com/2015/05/02/us/boeing-787-dreamliner-faa-directive/in....

Motion picture

Brigham, C., & Carter, C. (Producers), & Affleck, B. (Director). (2012). Argo [Motion picture]. United States: Time Warner.


[GEICO Insurance]. (2013, May 22). GEICO hump day camel commercial – happier than a camel on Wednesday [Video File]. http://youtu.be/kWBhP0EQ1lA

Episode from a TV series

Kemper, C. (Writer), & Flender, R. (Director). (2012). The whale [Television series episode]. In G. Daniels (Executive producer), The Office. National Broadcasting Company.

Music recording

Caird, J., Natel, J., Nunn, T., Boubil, A., Kretzmer, & H., Schonberg, C. (2012). On my own. [Recorded by Semantha Parks]. On Les Misèrables [CD]. Universal Republic Records.


National Eating Disorders Association [n.d.]. Contributing factors and prevention. January 17, 2013 https://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/contributing-factors-prevention

Blog post

Germano, W. (2013, January 17). Jack Lew’s signature [Web log post]. http://chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2013/01/17/jack-lews-signature/


National Geographic [@NatGeo]. (2020, January 12). Scientists knew African grays are clever, but now they’ve been documented assisting other members of their species—even strangers [Tweet; thumbnail link to article]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/NatGeo/status/1216346352063537154

Facebook Post

U.S. Department of the Interior. (2020, January 10). Like frosting on a cake, snow coats and clings to the hoodoos at Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/USInterior/photos/a.155163054537384/2586475451406120/?type=3&theater

Interview or e-mail

Note: Do not include these in the References; instead, cite these in the text:

(Z. Ramirez, personal communication, February 1, 2013).


Z. Ramirez, a witness for the prosecution, told me that she had seen the defendant approaching the stop sign (personal communication, February 1, 2013).


For more examples of the new APA Publication Manual, see the Excelsior College Online Writing Lab's APA Style Section (Excelsior OWL).