MLA Format

MLA Handbook, 9th Edition

Basic MLA citation format

Author. Title. Title of container, Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs URL or DOI). 2nd container’s title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if relevant). 

Book by a single author

King, Stephen. The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger. Grant, 1982.

Book by two or more authors

Pratchett, Terry and Neil Gaiman. Good Omens: The Nice and Accurate Prophecies of Agnes Nutter, Witch. Gollancz/Workman, 1990. 

Book by three or more authors

Stein, Garth et al. Hotel Angeline: A Novel in 36 Voices. Open Road Media, 2011. 

Book by a corporate author

American Allergy Association. Allergies in Children. Random House, 1998.

Edited book or anthology

Larson, Gary. “Runaways.” Wiener Dog Art: A Far Side Collection, edited by Jake Morrisey, Andrews McMeel Publishing, 1990, p. 60.

Article or chapter in edited book or anthology

Vásquez, Manuel. A. "Grappling with the Legacy of Modernity: Implications for the Sociology Of Religion." Religion on the Edge: De-centering and Re-centering the Sociology of Religion, edited by Courtney Bender et al., Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 23-42.

Chapter in a volume in a series

Fairclough, Norman, and Ruth Wodak. “Critical Discourse Analysis.” Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction, edited by Teun van Dijk, vol. 2, Sage, 1997, pp. 258-284.

Article in a reference book

Tolchinsky, Liliana. "Childhood Conceptions of Literacy." Handbook of Children's Literacy, edited by Terezinha Nunes et al., 2004, pp. 11-29. 

Magazine article

Verini, James. "The Tunnels of Gaza." National Geographic Dec. 2012, pp. 673-674. 

Newspaper article

Hennigan, W. J. "FAA Grounds Entire Fleet of Boeing 787s." Los Angeles Times 17 Jan. 2013, p. A1. 

Motion picture

Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Directed by George Lucas. Twentieth Century Fox, 1977.

Youtube Video

“Horse Playing with Rubber Chicken.” YouTube, uploaded by Weedor, 8 January 2017,   

Comment on a Website, Article, Blog, or Internet Video

Julianne R. Comment on “Breath of the Wild: Karaoke Grumps – PART 17 – Game Grumps.” ​YouTube, 28 Mar 2017,

Episode of a Series on Netflix

“Baby.” Supernatural, season 11, episode 4, 2015, Netflix, 

Song on Spotify

Fox Academy. “Star Earring.” Rabbit, Many Hats Distribution, 2020, Spotify,


National Geographic. National Geographic Partners, 2015,  

Blog post

Kelly, Tamara. “Hookin on Hump Day #137: Link Party for the Yarny Arts.” Moogly, 17 Mar 2017, Accessed 30 Mar. 2017.

E-mail message

Potter, Morgan. "Re: Community Meeting Next Tuesday." Received by William Tell, 15 Nov. 2017.

Personal Interview

Ramirez, Zelda. Personal interview. 1 February 2013.

Published Interviews

Gaitskill, Mary. Interview with Charles Bock. Mississippi Review, vol. 27, no. 3, 1999, pp. 129-50


“Lunar Interlude V: Reunion Tour – Part 2.” The Adventure Zone, episode 59, from Maximum Fun, 23 Mar 2017,


Additional Resources

See a sample MLA Paper (Purdue OWL).